Tuesday, 11 July 2017

Bits of eLearning pieces

As my last role was more focussed on line managing, training, assessing and developing the Digital Learning Design apprentices.  I didn't create as much eLearning as I'd have liked to as I was directing the apprentices in creating it.  I have since been doing a very hands-on role where I have been expanding my creative skills in learning design and exercising my technical abilities using a range of tools.  I feel now is a good time to share some of the things I have been creating in the last few months in this role.

This role has been good to exercise my knowledge and skills of using and creating learning content in Moodle.  H5P is a new tool to me that I've had the pleasure of exploring and developing eLearning content with.  I've had broader use of Articulate 360; Studio, Storyline, Rise and Replay.  As well as exploring the use of bootstrap functions and the Lambda themes in Moodle courses.  I've also extended my enthusiasm for learning design by strategising new approaches to designing distance courses and online learning content.  I'm currently leading on the development of transforming our main blended courses to be fully online.  I also have side projects of designing a short online course preparing learners for online study, as well as continuing my development of a new Moodle module template for higher education.

Hands-on

Below is a rough video demonstrating some pieces of work I have done in a variety of projects.


Bringing something new

The following are new methodologies I introduced to the organisation to help with learning design and evaluation processes.


Events attended

I've been able to keep myself up to date and benchmark my learning technology practices by attending the events below.

Friday, 30 June 2017

Digital Learning Design - from apprenticeship to permanent job

The whole purpose of the Digital Learning Design qualifications was to create and up-skill an eLearning workforce.  An overview of the apprenticeship I designed and ran is shown in this video from 2 minutes 23 seconds onwards and a brief overview of the qualifications are here.  Maybe not all apprentices pursued eLearning or learning technology careers afterwards, but this proves that these courses have ignited the apprentices creativity and been able to apply it into an educational context.

In my previous learning technologist role in further education that included line managing, training, assessing a small team of apprentices and leading on internal verification, which led to me winning the Learning Technologist of the Year Award 2016 and other internal and external awards that the team were recognised for.  Since I moved on I have kept in touch with some of the apprentices.  Some asked for references for when they applied for jobs and I also sent them jobs they could potentially apply for.  But as I managed the apprentices, apprenticeship and qualifications I am keen to see how they have progressed on in their early careers and how the apprenticeship has impacted on their careers and development.

I remember it well when I completed and moved on from my business and administration apprenticeship many years ago.  It's such a scary but exciting feeling that you're going into (usually) your first proper job.  The looming anxiety of working with new people, adapting to a new working environment and knowing how to approach your new seniors.  It's one of those early moments when you realise you're an independent young adult.

I have chosen Brad and Sarah as I know they have continued to work in the eLearning industry and I developed them from the first year we ran the courses from the Level 3 diploma.  They then progressed onto the Level 4 extended diploma for another year.  I interrupted their busy schedules to ask them the following questions and these were their responses.


Brad Brown Lang
Sarah Jones
What is the role you are doing now?  What kinds of tasks do you undertake?
As an instructional designer, it is my role to create engaging learning materials for online students, consisting of a range of multimedia such as graphics and videos, as well as interactive content.
Instructional Designer, I develop online learning resources for students completing online degrees using video and audio which I edit together to engage the learner as well as using other forms of media.
What was your biggest challenge going into the workplace?  Did you feel equipped and ready from the apprenticeship?  If so, what were these?  If not, what would have helped you to be equipped and ready?
The biggest challenge for me were not knowing how well I was going to adapt to the new environment and team. I felt as though the apprenticeship had given me all of the skills I needed. This included technical skills like using programs such as the Adobe Creative Suite, Adobe Captivate and Moodle. However, these also included personal skills such as being able to work more effectively as part of a team, improving my time management, and presentation skills.
I'd say the biggest challenge was moving into a bigger office than previous. I felt ready from the apprenticeship as I could use my knowledge and skills straightaway from what I had learnt and I barely needed any training.
How have you used the knowledge and skills gained from your L3 and L4 apprenticeship?  Was there any particular parts of the apprenticeship that enabled you to use them instantly?
Although I am currently using different programs from what I used during my apprenticeships, they were very similar to each other, which meant that I was able to familiarise myself with the programs pretty quickly, along with a few pointers from my colleagues along the way. Also, the fact that I am already very familiar with 'chunking' is extremely useful, as in my current role I need to break down large chunks of content into smaller and more useful parts. Both of these I feel helped give me a nice smooth start in my role.
I use my video editing skills everyday which I learnt on the course as well as what I learnt about how to keep learners engaged in the content I am producing by using a wide range of media. 
Are there any choices you have changed since doing the L3 and L4 apprenticeship?  Has it met your aspirations or not?
I feel that both of the apprenticeships I completed did meet my aspirations. I thoroughly enjoyed the time I spent working with my colleagues, as well as learning all of the valuable variety of skills along the way. I feel that without taking part in those apprenticeships, I would not be where I would be now.
When I first started the apprenticeship I wanted to be a Graphic Designer but since doing the apprenticeship and since starting the full time job I definitely want to carry on being an instructional designer.
What future plans do you have for your career?  Is it still in eLearning?  Is there a particular role you are aspiring to do?  Any areas within the company?
I hope to continue being an instructional designer for the next few years at least, however if at some point in the future any jobs arise that would allow me to progress further into the industry such as managing a team of designers, I may give that a try.
I want to carry on doing e-Learning design and instructional design and hopefully move higher up by being a head of learning technology in a company. 
What successes have you had in your job roles since starting them?  Any recognition or feedback from your colleagues and your manager?
One success that I have had since starting my new job is that I have been able to quickly produce content of suitable quality fairly quickly, this was due to the knowledge and skills I had learned during the apprenticeships previously. My new manager has mentioned to me in a meeting about how relieved he was with the quality of my first couple of projects.
My current manager and some colleagues often give me great feedback on my work. I would say a great success for me was passing my 6 month probation.

The qualifications have proved to be well-aligned and valuable for instructional design and have supported the apprentices well in securing a full-time permanent job doing it.  The qualifications have also equipped them with creative, technical, communicative and organisational skills as required for this type of role.  The range of software and instructional design techniques I introduced have also proved useful to them by allowing them to hit the ground from the start and demonstrate their worth.  The qualifications have opened up career pathways and allowed them to aspire into senior roles in the eLearning and learning technology industry.  I'm very pleased to see they want to continue in this industry and direction.

Seeing these positive comments about the quality of their work just makes me feel very proud of them.  Knowing how they both started off on the Level 3 course on a career pathway that was new to them, to the young independent adults they are now.  Just marvellous!  They've reached what we hope of all our learners which is independence in life and a prosperous career.  They're now confident and making their own informed choices towards building their futures.

I'm very proud to have been a part of their journey and developed them as I have. I quickly evaluated, monitored and coordinated their abilities so that I could facilitate their strengths and transform their weaknesses.  However, they had their own unique ambitions, motivations and determination to succeed in this multi-skilled job role that is instructional design.  When I supplied Sarah and Brad's reference for their current job, it was nice to hear feedback from their now manager telling me how employable they are and that it is a credit to myself.  I feel like this is nice recognition for the efforts I did to ensure they were industry ready.  I'm looking forward to see how the rest of their careers shape up in the future.

Tuesday, 30 May 2017

eTutoring - Models for facilitating online discussions

In early 2015 I was studying two modules on my Technology Enhanced Learning MSc, one of which was eTutoring.  From sharing a part of my eTutoring work in the post 'An experience of facilitating an online discussion' (which I received a distinction), after looking through some of my work I've decided to share the accompanying essay (which was graded a B).  It would be a shame not to share it as I really enjoyed the subject of eTutoring - in fact it was one of my favourite pieces of work during my Technology Enhanced Learning MSc, but not forgetting my eLearning package evaluation, ePortfolio and dissertation!  Here is a presentation I made taking excerpts from the essay component of the eTutoring module I did.

Tuesday, 23 May 2017

Blended Learning Essentials - a summary of curation

I've known about the Blended Learning Essentials course for some time, but I haven't been able to do them until now.  I heard that they have been very successful and read lots of positive things about them.  Since I completed my Technology Enhanced Learning masters last Summer, I haven't done any other formal learning as such.  So I think I was due to participate and learn something new or reinforce things I may have forgotten along my journey.

The course proved very valuable for me as you can see I have taken a lot of knowledge and practice from it.  The first part of the course ran for 5 weeks from February to March and included a variety of topics from the theory of blended learning, to designing it then delivering with it.  The second part of the course ran in May for 3 weeks and explored the practical aspects of implementing blended learning.

Originally this post was in two parts to coincide with the courses, however it made sense to do it as one and delay it until I completed the second course.  In this post I present the interests I have curated during the study of each course and summarised my understandings into categories.  This was a good exercise to review what I have acquired during each week and think about how I can use it.

Blended learning

Blended learning is a mix of traditional and digital technologies that are combined together.  Both learners and teachers use their time more effectively to achieve more.  Because of it's flexibility, it can also make a positive impact on those learners that are hard to reach.  There are five benefits to blended learning; flexibility, active learning, personalisation, learner control and feedback.

We use computers (websites, software) to input data into them which is the content (information) which then becomes interactive for learners to take control of.  Such as self-completion of activities or embedded videos for example.  The activities we create can also give feedback on your decisions, which is personalisation.  Blended learning is useful for enabling active learning where learners can do things the same time the teacher does - making their own sense of the actions as it happens.

There are three simple ways to use blended learning; problem-based learning encourages active learning, using real world scenarios, social learning and applying knowledge to new situations; social constructivism is learning as a result of social interaction and collaboration with others; constructivism through learners constructing their own knowledge and meaning through experience.

Blended learning allows you to use a variety of open tools and dip in and out of different types of learning strategies and experiences.  Open tools can be organised into categories in the context of learning outcomes; multimedia production, presentation tools, collaborative writing tools, reflective tools, collaboration tools, interactive tools, social tools.  You will still have the traditional teaching aspects but you have the appropriate technology within that to enhance and support it, and capture and present material in different ways.  For example the flipped classroom is useful for flipping the activities to the classroom with the instruction at home.  Communication is highly important as it enables the need to check and confirm thoughts.  It awakens internal processes that only happens when a learner is interacting with people in their environment and cooperation with peers.

I found the vocational pedagogy very interesting that was located in the City & Guilds 'Culture, Coaching and Collaboration'.  There are six outcomes of vocational education which are encouraged to be used as the basis of vocational learning and teaching.  These are identified as routine expertise, resourcefulness, functional literacies, craftsmanship, business-like attitudes, and wider skills for growth.  Alongside this are ten dimensions of decision-making.  Each end of the attributes below represents a different option of delivery for learning and teaching, encouraging some variety in practice.  Digital technology can be used to experiment with these learning and teaching practices.

Facilitative > Role of the teacher > Didactic
Authentic > Nature of activities > Contrived
Practice > Means of knowing > Theory
Questioning > Attitude to knowledge > Certain
Extended > Organisation of time > Bell-bound
Workshop > Organisation of space > Classroom
Group > Approach to tasks > Individual
High > Visibility of processes > Hidden
Virtual > Proximity to teacher > Face-to-face
Self-managed > Role of the learner > Directed

Curriculum design

The traditional method of curriculum design is to identify the learning to be understood and the sequence of activities that need to undertaken in order to achieve it.  Curriculum design is the same process for blended or wholly online and should always focus n pedagogy.  These days activities need to be more engaging and interactive which needs to involve the student having ownership of the process of it.  If using a student-centred curriculum (contributing to learning materials and creating content), multimedia production and sharing will be essential.

Curriculum design relies on a structure - instructional design allows us to review how each topic will be taught, what sequence, what methods and tools are going to be used and the outcome.  It's an outcome-focussed process that looks what learners are expected to learn and change as a result - what couldn't be done art the beginning to what they can do at the end.  Designing the assessment (formative, for and of learning, summative assessment) first is a good way of defining the learning outcomes.  It's useful to consider whether the assessment is digitally based or not and aligning to the learning outcomes, curriculum content, learner needs, and the pedagogy.

The instructional design process D(define)ADDIE model demonstrates the value of the iterative design – test – redesign – implement-evaluate cycle. It helps you focus on the importance of considering inclusivity, accessibility, flexibility and usability when planning for implementation.  Define is the link to curriculum design and identifies what is going to be delivered.  Analysis looks at the audience (learners’ needs, expectations and requirements) and how they will or are likely to react to the learning process.  Design takes the information obtained and allows you to create and deliver the learning in a form that is engaging and interactive.  This includes the course sequence, learning outcomes, activities and assessment.  Develop enables you to make your learning design a reality such as the resources, learning activities, and tests.  Implement is about putting your learning design into action ensuring it I accessible, inclusive and usable.  Evaluate allows you to assess whether the learning design was effective or not in meeting the learning outcomes.  Overall instructional design is an iterative process that questions what and who is it all for and did it work and what can be done to make it better in future.  It also ensures that you make the best of the digital technology.

Digital technology

When using digital technology, it should be used to add value to existing teaching practices.  It should enable you to move from one space to another seamlessly due to the open nature of the online learning tools.  A main purpose of Technology Enhanced Learning (TEL) is that learners will engage in more learning time because they are actively involved in the tasks producing and interacting with content, which leads to technology-supported independent learning.  Digital technology can make a significant impact where there is a clear need to make improvements - pedagogical challenges and problems.  However, we need to think about the people we are going to use digital technology with so that we don't exclude anyone.

Synchronous occurs in real time, not just discussions but creating something as well.  Asynchronous is not in real time where people join in at different times - which provides a benefit in thinking before contributing.

The main benefits to digital technology are; time and place - enables education to offer greater flexibility.  Online resources and activities allow learners to learn at home, at work or when travelling, as well as in their designated place of learning; pace of learning - the learner accesses and uses the digital resources under their control; variety of learning modes - learners can do individual, group work or blend their own digital, physical and social learning; content focus - learners encouraged to follow their own online searches to relevance; differentiation - diverse learner needs can be met through assistive technologies and open educational resources to meet learner’s needs; the educator’s use of time - distribute time in different ways to deliver whole class, small group, individual support, across face-to-face and online learning.  It's much easier to get around a computer than it is a textbook.  With a computer you're connected and can search and change things.  Computers save and record work and progress, plus you can access things as much as you need and at your own speed.  Digital technology does or helps to produce evidence of learning.

Learner data

When a learner interacts with a digital system, tool or resource, they leave a digital footprint.  There are opportunities to collect data on individuals or groups which can be used in various ways to improve the learner experience.  This is also referred to as ‘big data or learning analytics’ which enables educators to collect, analyse and report large datasets to identify any patterns and trends of their learners.  Therefore this data can be used to inform a learners own progress, learner activity, behaviour and preferences on how they learn and interact with digital content.  Data analytics should not only be used to capture what student have done or are doing, but it has scope to inform and improve online learning design, online learning interactions, assessment needs and digital marketing of online courses and provisions.
Data collected for improving learning outcomes can derive from performance on tests and learners’ online engagement in discussions, questions, or even comments in focus groups and surveys.  The key questions to ask are; what data to collect, what implications there are for collecting data, and how to interpret and use the data.  I made this comment at the recent MoodleMoot; "Perhaps focus on promoting learning analytic tools to learners to encourage managing their own learning = independent learning."

Culture change with digital technology

I found this interesting and reassuring to know as it reminds me of what I experienced and lead on in my previous role at a further education college.   To enable and manage culture change with digital technology in an organisation, the following pointers are useful to consider.

  • Assess whether blended learning is where it should be - challenge the current culture that exists
  • Specify that senior management need to be involved by modelling (at the beginning), setting the direction and supportive otherwise it will depend on the motivated enthusiasts to lead it all
  • Listen to issues that teaching staff have and work through it with them to build confidence
  • Discuss good practice with curriculum staff but allow time for leaders to model the use of it.  Failure of this will stymie the culture change process
  • Planning and delivering staff development needs to aimed at leaders not just curriculum staff - develop enthusiasm
  • Harness the enthusiasm and create an environment for learning where progress can happen
  • Create an environment that is not just about technology and the latest gadget but about making learning more effective
  • Enable the environment to be encouraging, rewarding and risk taking - something I was in the process of
  • Include early adopters and keep them a focus in the process.  Get the early majority and the late majority will join.  But always expect people that won't want to engage
  • Identifying the reluctant and guiding them back to the direction (imperative) set by leaders and innovators
  • Ask the reluctant 'how could we make this easier for you?', 'what in this could save you time?', 'where will you get the time back?'
  • Invest time to sit and show people the impact and possibilities of blended learning and digital technology.  Ask what they want and what they are comfortable with (learners too)
  • Explain how digital tools and resources can be helpful to their practices.  Ask how they are going to make an impact in their curriculum and pedagogy
  • Explain blended learning as you can't force people to use digital technology without understanding the pedagogy for it
  • Raising confidence with digital technology in the classroom can alleviate many issues of engaging in innovation
  • Get managers to make digital technology part of a conversation.  How are teams and individuals using it in their practices?
  • Ask learners what is working well and not well for them
  • Plan and run workshops, presentations, one to ones, formal and informal meetings, coffee mornings, twilight sessions for people to talk and share about their good practices
  • Be proactive and follow up how people are getting on with using digital technology - they might hit a problem and be put off.  Work with them on a solution - problem-based sessions might be useful
  • Identify and celebrate successes and promote them.  Others will see the benefits and be inspired to try in their practice and share with others in their department
  • Accept that changing culture won't happen quickly or over night - little wins can be a key to bigger wins

The above guidelines embolden what I did for my masters dissertation where I presented the argument of how a further education college's eLearning strategy lacked direction and articulation of pedagogical change in a digital age by not having underpinning pedagogy running through it.

The following are other key factors to consider when making a culture change with digital technology; leadership, vision and strategy, developing staff buy-in, using champions, reward and recognition for staff, working with students and other stakeholders, using evidence to support change, providing a supportive environment, developing skills and providing a robust technology landscape.

To achieve effective change the following stakeholders are useful to bring together to collaborate; teachers and trainers (design, develop and test new digital pedagogies and technologies); teaching support staff (online learner support); learning technology specialists (support innovation and digital awareness); media and technical specialists (quality resources and tools); library staff (source online resources, tools and services); IT staff (technology purchases and infrastructure requirements); marketing staff (promote online and blended learning courses); leaders and managers (support and champion change); students (develop change and provide feedback).

eLearning resources

  • Course map - very useful for laying out the sequence and activities of an online course.
  • Quick poll - asked my attitude towards blended learning if I was convinced of it or now and how much I use it in my practices.  Good to start off that reflective thinking and how I may approach the course material to come.
  • Crib sheets (how to's') - available to download at the end of a topic or module
  • Video case study crib sheet - can be used for Improve International and 5m Publishing H5P Moodle activities
  • Typeform - a new digital technology to try out.  Whilst not free it is a good way for learners to be questioned/surveyed and responses are saved.
  • Typeform reflection questions asking my attitude towards blended learning and how often I use it in my practices.
  • FutureLearn course design could be implemented into our Moodle courses.  Activities structured around the course map, transcripts can be put under the video along with crib sheets.
  • Linking back to correct/incorrect answers from a quiz to content/resources in Moodle
  • Matching pedagogy to digital technology exercise - selected approaches from above and decided from the example activities which was most appropriate to implement.
  • The VLE should be used for interactive activities and learner-generated content.
  • OERs can be used for student experience, digital literacy, recognition, marketing and external relations, efficiency.
  • Storytelling techniques can be used as a process of trying to get them to treat the course as a quest so they're actually discovering new facts as they go through.  It becomes an adventure for learners rather than a sequence of activities.  Moodle lends itself very well to digital storytelling as it allows the use of rich media like animation, video, podcasting, as well as the written narrative
  • Using a basic structure like Moodle you can use it to build a storyline of the course including where learner control is and a clear end point where they can clearly demonstrate what they've learned.
  • Communicate with learners a day before a new week so they know what is coming up and can be prepared and have the right frame of mind for it
  • Blended Learning Essentials Moodle Hub - good for pre-made Moodle activities
  • Different types of learning in action through; acquisition (reading, watching, listening); inquiry (investigate and compare); discussion (exchanging ideas with each other); practice (putting concepts into practice in an exercise with feedback); collaboration (participating and exchanging); production (producing something)
  • Moodle Workshop for peer review as a form of active learning - review at least 2 other learners’ drafts, score them in terms of the criteria, and provide constructive comments
  • Jorum, Khan Academy, Merlot, The Excellence Gateway and OpenLearn - good for OERs

Taking it forward

Talk about excellent timing!  In my organisation we are at the start of reviewing it's strategy for evolving it's blended and distance learning courses.  This is an excellent time as the knowledge I have just acquired and refreshed on will be very useful to feed forward in the conversations I will be participating in.  The blended learning, curriculum design and digital technology knowledge will be useful to shape a strategic vision and purpose of what we want to achieve.  A well-thought foundation will be discussed and agreed in which we can build upon.  Learner data and eLearning resources will be considered in the learning design process, when deciding on the best and appropriate ways to deliver the digital content.  The culture change with digital technology is useful for engaging and supporting change in the organisation.  It was a firm reminder of the work I was carrying out in my previous job in further education.

I have also been using some of this material in other conversations and learning designs I am working on.  This will be a solid post to refer to from time to time when I need to go to the core of blended learning design.

Thursday, 4 May 2017

Digital inauthenticity - the rising epidemic

When it comes to making informed decisions you have to be proactive.  I'll briefly discuss some points you can consider when making informed decisions relating to the information via social media or any websites.  This post is inspired through personal observation of social media that I have been seeing a lot of recently.  This is useful for everyday life such as work and study when searching material on the internet.  By no means is this a politically charged narrative nor am I a politics enthusiast, however this also very useful for making educated political voting decisions.

The rise of social-hungry-attention-seekers and 'fake news' has been amplified more than ever through social media.  Everyone is allowed to make an opinion and the freedom to express themselves whichever way they like, as I am doing now.  So you could say at this point you may ask why should you believe this?  But you should as you know it to be true if you look deep enough.  A lot of this can relate back to early literacy skills - English to interpret and analyse others tone of communication; reading, writing, listening and speaking.  Is it expository, persuasive, narrative or descriptive?  Like marketing, some write their articles to a targeted audience and tap into your existing preconceptions.  Which make you want to agree with them, which could then eventually lead onto the inappropriate use of propaganda.  Organisations pay people to follow them or employ people to go on social media to generate interest and sometimes troll for reactions.

I see a lot of posts written by non-professionals claiming '10 things you should do to make a better relationship...' or 'these daily ingredients that are slowly killing you...'.  Even worse, I see a lot of memes written with clumsy information on and people believing and reacting to them as if it's true.  It's subjective and unreliable rubbish and we can be just like vacuums sucking it in.  Are we really 'Chained to the Rhythm'?  It's a rising epidemic and it needs to dealt with.  Imagine that all of your life choices were informed by these unauthentic articles.  Scary isn't it!  Ask yourself, who are you responding to, them or yourself?

A lot of this stems from a post I wrote many years ago 'Evolutionary not revolutionary?' where I said; "technology is our greatest invention and I think it will be our greatest killer".  If we do not learn how to adapt to this epidemic positively and effectively, it could result in a huge outbreak of social separation and divide, which has actually been happening for some time.  When people have claimed the end of the world years ago, I've always thought it's nothing to do with a asteroid on a collision course with earth, nor any ancient calendar etc.  I believe it's things like this where humans will just implode on themselves and societies and communities will be so disconnected and divided it will be hard to recover.

Most of us have become somewhat lazy and believing what is laid upon us.  It takes effort and time to search for information and even the truth.  However, we must make effort to learn true facts.  Here is a few points to consider to help inform yourself when searching for authentic material:

  • Read and share the information if you only feel they are credible enough
  • Be aware of trolls. Some people find joy in putting out misinformation and comments to provoke others into anger or to create intentional negative reactions
  • Avoid being drawn into unrealistic and catchy headlines.  It's usually 'click bait' to gain more views to their websites.  If it looks and sounds unreal, it most likely is. Be suspicious but in moderation
  • Investigate the source of the information.  How legitimate and genuine are they?  What is their reputation for accuracy like?  Do they have a background in that subject that allows authenticity?  Are they experts and qualified in this area?  What organisations are they attached to?  Check the language, spelling, punctuation and grammar they use - if it's flakey they cannot be professional
  • Look at the website address/Uniform Resource Locator (URL) closely to see if it matches or belongs to the same company.  A webpage could be an excellent clone of the real webpage but the URL will give away its identity
  • Review the images used.  They might look authentic but if you look closely they could be manipulated or doctored and be taken out of context.  Search for the image to check it's authenticity
  • Check the dates and reporting of the information.  It could be old and reused information or the actual event is out of timeline.  If it's not being reported by other trusted sources then it's unauthentic and unreliable
  • Distinguish if the information is for humour.  Again check if the source is a known parody or comedy establishment/personality, it might just be for fun - like April Fools

Overall, consider if the information is true, helpful, inspiring, necessary or kind.